Update on Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections and Their Management: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association

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Abstract
Despite improvements in cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) design, application of timely infection control practices, and administration of antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of device placement, CIED infections continue to occur and can be life-threatening. This has prompted the study of all aspects of CIED infections. Recognizing the recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, risk factors, microbiology, management, and prevention of CIED infections, the American Heart Association commissioned this scientific statement to educate clinicians about CIED infections, provide explicit recommendations for the care of patients with suspected or established CIED infections, and highlight areas of needed research.

Baddour LM, Epstein AE, Erickson CC, Knight BP, Levison ME, Lockhart PB, Masoudi FA, Okum EJ, Wilson WR, Beerman LB, Bolger AF, Estes NA 3rd, Gewitz M, Newburger JW, Schron EB, Taubert KA; American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in Young; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care; American Heart Association.
Circulation. 2010;121:458-77